Why will the global conjugate vaccine market flourish in the future?
Vaccines have been a trusted aid in the fight against various kinds of diseases for over two centuries now. Deadly diseases such as smallpox, rinderpest saw their end due to the worldwide vaccination campaign, and global immunization programmes have completely eliminated polio from several countries. In a conjugate vaccine, a weak antigen is attached to a strong antigen, which invokes a stronger immunological response to the antigen. This is accomplished using a very weak or dead version of a pathogenic virus or bacteria so that the immune system can recognize and destroy the antigen later in life.
According to research conducted by leading market research analysts, the global conjugate vaccine market is anticipated to expand at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 11.7% during 2017-2022, to reach approximately USD 87.7 Bn by 2022
Researchers still continue to place their highest bets on the global conjugate vaccines market due to the several benefits conjugate vaccines provide over plain polysaccharides such as longer lasting, ongoing protection against disease, reduction in virus carriage also known as herd immunity and protection against non-invasive diseases such as sepsis and meningitis. These factors act as a driving force behind the popularity and greater adoption of conjugate vaccines in the future.
New development and delivery techniques adopted in the field of vaccine research
Researchers are continuously exploring newer possibilities to improve vaccine performance and lower costs, higher effectiveness and convenience are the main goals. Many vaccines use a live, attenuated virus, others used a weakened or a dead virus, bacteria or inactive toxins created by the bacteria. However new techniques are being used to create new types of vaccines such as a live recombinant vaccine or DNA vaccines. In Live recombinant vaccines, attenuated viruses are used as vectors. This approach is used when giving the actual agent as a vaccine in humans or to enhance the immunological response to a disease-carrying agent. DNA vaccines are directly injected to the muscle and consists of DNA coding for a particular antigen. This vaccine is simpler to produce out of the two and is still in the experimental stage as no DNA vaccine has shown the substantial immune response required to prevent disease.
Old immunization delivery methods like administrating a shot are slowly being replaced by newer methods such as inhaled vaccines. Influenza vaccines are available in the form of a nasal spray in making countries. Other forms of administration include patch application, which consists of a matrix of extremely tiny needles, eliminating the use of a syringe to deliver a vaccine. This method is particularly useful in the rural regions, where there is a lack of medical professionals trained to deliver a shot by syringes.
A problem faced by the global conjugate vaccine market that most researchers are looking to solve is called the cold-chain problem. Conjugate vaccines need cold storage to remain viable. Unfortunately, cold storage facilities are unavailable in several parts of the world, where pneumococcal diseases are prevalent. Researchers and officials fear that the lack of cold storage and delay in delivering the vaccine would render the vaccine useless and will lead to widespread disease which could easily be avoided.
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